Ulcerative colitis; It is a type of intestinal disease due to infection. The diagnosis process of the mentioned inflammatory bowel disease, which affects the large intestines and causes inflammation and ulcers in the intestinal wall when not controlled, is very important for the success of the treatment. So much so that ulcerative bowel disease can be confused with many diseases such as Chron's disease, chronic infectious diseases.
Causes of Ulcerative Colitis
Although the causes of ulcerative colitis are not known with certainty, it has been determined that it is not an infectious disease, and dietary habits are effective in the manifestation and course of the disease.
In addition to the eating habits that affect the formation of ulcerative colitis, stress, working in heavy industry, excessive drug use, and infectious diseases affecting the immune system can be counted among the factors that cause it.
Ulcerative Colitis Symptoms
It is possible to list the symptoms of ulcerative colitis as follows;
- Mucus defecation
- Abdominal swelling and cramping
- Constant urge to defecate
- Fatigue and vomiting
- High fever and chills
- Bleeding and pain
- Exposure to liver problems
- Eye problems (iritis, episcleritis)
- joint pains
Types of Ulcerative Colitis
In ulcerative colitis, symptoms and treatment vary according to the area where the intestine is involved.
Ulcerative proctitis: there is inflammation only in the rectum.
Proctosigmoiditis: inflammation of the large intestine and rectum adjacent to the rectum.
Left-sided colitis: inflammation that starts in the rectum also affects the left side of the large intestine.
Pancolitis: Inflammation of the entire colon.
Fulminant colitis: It is a situation in which the course of the disease is intense and the intestinal problem threatens life. It is rare.
Who Gets Ulcerative Colitis Most?
ulcerative colitis; Although it can be seen in people from all age groups, it can generally start in the 20-30 age range or 50-60 age range. The incidence is equal in men and women.
How is Ulcerative Colitis Diagnosed?
To diagnose ulcerative colitis, your doctor will order some tests and tests. Ulcerative colitis diagnostic methods are as follows;
- Blood test and stool test: Before the diagnosis of the disease is made, it is performed to exclude other causes and to detect accompanying abnormalities. It does not diagnose alone.
- Endoscopy and colonoscopy: large and small intestines, stomach and esophagus are examined. Especially in the evaluation of the large intestine, the rate of disease involvement, activation, biopsy is performed for definitive diagnosis.
- CT (Computed Tomography) and MR (Magnetic Resonance)
- Flexible sigmoidoscopy: It is the process of examining the rectum with a special lighted device. It is used for rapid decision making and follow-up of the disease process without the need for a colonoscopy preliminary preparation.
Ulcerative Colitis Treatment
In the treatment of ulcerative colitis, which is a chronic disease, medication and diet treatments can be applied. In patients who do not respond to these treatments, surgical treatment can be performed as a last option.
Drug therapy: Antibiotics and cortisol therapy are used in the treatment of attacks, while drugs to reduce wall inflammation, which we call aminosalicylate, and immunomodulatory drugs should be preferred in follow-up. It is aimed to improve the intestinal wall, reduce diarrhea, bleeding gas and bloating.
Diet: attention should be paid to the nutrition and diet programs of such patients. There are different types of diet programs according to the patient's condition. It should be applied under the supervision of a physician.
Surgery: It is based on the discipline of completely removing the large intestine, which is applied when there is no response to the treatments given.
What Are the Risk Factors of Ulcerative Colitis?
We mentioned earlier that ulcerative colitis is not a contagious disease. The genetic transmission of the disease and its presence in family members increases the risk of its occurrence in children. At the same time, environmental factors and dietary habits increase the risk of developing the disease.